Monkfish/stargazer are found throughout New Zealand waters to depths of up to 500m. They are most plentiful around the South Island and on the Chatham Rise. Monkfish/stargazer have an annual reproductive cycle with a winter spawning season. Commercial catch levels have fluctuated around 2,000 - 4,200 tonnes since the late 1980s. The abundance of monkfish/ stargazer around the South Island, as monitored by catch rates and trawl surveys, has been broadly stable over the last two decades.